All Arduino code consists of these three major elements: Comments: Comments are bits of plain text that are ignored by the Arduino compiler. They are used to document your code and make it understandable to other people. Variables: Variables are used to store data that can change, like the number of seconds passed since January 1, 1970. Arithmetic Operators: Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic calculations, like adding two numbers together. Assignment Operators: Assignment operators are used to assign a value to a variable, like setting the value of seconds to 500. Comparison Operators: Comparison operators are used to compare two values, like determining whether a number is greater than another number.

In Arduino, you program by writing instructions for the microprocessor. If you want to make the Arduino do something, you have to write instructions in the form of code. Many beginners are confused about how to create code for the Arduino. A code statement or a single line of code is called a statement.  There are several different types of statements used in Arduino programming.

The control structures in the Arduino IDE help you create programs for your projects using the Arduino board. Therefore, it is important that you know the secrets of this programming language, which we will show you below.

First, we will analyze the different types of control structures in Arduino and understand why they are so important to make a sketch work.

We will also mention other structures of Arduino programming that you should know to develop your own projects from scratch. Pay attention to every detail to become a true electronics expert.

What are control structures and what are they used for when programming Arduino projects?

Control structures in the Arduino programming environment are tools used to select a sequence or alternative path in the software structure. This means that they are instructions that break the methodical sequence of codes, because there is a logical expression that allows to decide which path to follow, so that both can then reach the same end of the process.

For better management and better reading of the program code, it is necessary to use the tabulation correctly in each structure. This allows you to find errors or sequences to repeat faster.

Types of control structures in Arduino What does this mean?

There are two types of control structures in Arduino programming which are:

Decision-making structures

This type of structure refers to the path a program must follow when there is a variable that divides a sequence of code into two. It computes a condition and returns a value (true or false) to decide which instructions to execute based on the answer.

You will find the following conditional instructions in the Arduino :


You will use this tool when you want to know if a variable has reached a certain condition.

Syntax Su :

if (condition) { //Acceptance of the condition and expiry of the RENT.



For example:

if (x > 120) digital recording (LED pin, HIGH) ;

if (x > 120)

digitalWrite (LEDpin, HIGH) ;

if (x > 120) {digitalWrite(LEDpin, HIGH);}

if (x > 120) {

digitalWrite (LEDpin1, HIGH) ;

digitalWrite(LEDpin2, HIGH) ;


// todo está correcto/

In the case of adding another is searched if it does not meet the conditionSo, the program must perform some action.


This framework tool can be used to select multiple mutually exclusive conditions when a particular situation occurs.

It should be used with the following structure:

if (condition 1) {

// Doing things A


otherwise, if (condition 2) {

// Do the thing b/



// The thing with/to do


Switch– Housing

This structure can be used when a program needs to decide on a particular instruction, when it is possible to compare the value of a variable with previously defined values.

Its syntax is defined as follows:

switch (var) {

Checkout sticker1 :

// Instructions


Cash register sticker2 :

// Instructions



// Instructions



Where var is the variable that the program should compare to the other data (assuming they are of type int Y char). The Y labels are exported constants. Used to exit the switch and, by default, execute a block code if the requested conditions are not met.

Repetitive structures

These loop structures are tools that allow you to execute instructions in a program multiple times.

Among the most commonly used sets in Arduino :


You can repeat the code sequences between the keys in the time you specify in the Arduino IDE. This is done by analyzing whether the conditions for re-executing this set of control structures are met.

It is developed according to these parameters:

for (initialization ; condition ; increment) {

// Statement(s);


Where initialization means that it is done once and at the beginning of the structure. A condition is a piece of data that must appear in the program to enter the loop in question (remember that the loop ends if the condition is FALSE). If TRUE is thrown into the loop, the loop is executed incrementally.


With this instrument you can run a cycle continuously as often as necessary, provided that the condition in brackets at the beginning of the cycle is fulfilled. If it returns false, the expression is terminated and the action is aborted.

His structure:

while (condition) { // la condición debe ser TRUE o FALSE

// Statement(s)


do while

This loop is used in the same way as the while statement above. But in this case, the structure’s repetition condition is in parentheses at the end of the block.

The syntax:


// Instruction block

while (condition) ;

A concrete example:

int x = 0 ;


delay(50) ; // para esperar que se estabilice el sensor

x = readSensors(); // read the sensors

while (x < 100) ;


This tool is very useful when you want to move a program to a specific point, based on a previously defined marker.

For example:

for (byte r = 0; r < 255; r++) { for (byte g = 255; g > 0; g–) {

for (byte b = 0; b < 255; b++) { if (analogRead(0) > 250) {



// Program Announcements.





// more declaraciones/


If you need to leave the maintenance structure, you must use this statement. To be used with cases, for a short time or for a long period.

Example code:

int threshold = 40 ;

for (int x = 0; x < 255; x++) { analog write (PWMpin, x); sensor = analog read (sensorPin); if (sensor > threshold) { // recatalog in sensor detection

x = 0 ;






To skip the rest of the sequences defined in the program, use this tool along with do, for or while.

For example:

for (int x = 0; x <= 255; x ++) { if (x > 40 && x < 120) { // make a jump in values

Go ahead;


analog recording (PWMpin, x) ;



Other Arduino programming structures you need to know to develop your own projects

In addition to the above structures, there are other tools to consider when programming your Arduino board.

See below:


A sketch, also called an Arduino sketch, is a programming structure that contains all the code you need to run the project, so the board can perform the actions you want. It consists of variables, functions added by operators, configuration tools () and loops (), as well as programmer comments.

In this programming environment, you will find a message area that indicates errors or correct program progress. The toolbar is also used to access various commands. It is important to note that the thumbnail is an .ino file and the directory must have the same name as the thumbnail for this to work. The thumbnail may be in a different file, but must be in a folder with the same name.

Structure of the sketch :

void setup() {

// Steps need to be taken to reorganize the prosecutor’s office:


void loop() {

// ingress main aquí, so it can perform formal iterations:


Arithmetic operators

Arithmetic operators are symbols used in Arduino software to enable addition, subtraction, multiplication and division functions. Remember that the return values are based on the data defined in the operands, such as. B. int (in this case the results obtained have no decimal places).

In light of the above, the following example can be suggested:

int a = 5 ;

int b = 10 ;

int c = 0 ;

c = a + b ; // the variable c takes on a value of 15 después de que se ejecuta esta declaración

If the operands are of different types for some reason, the program takes the most significant operand and returns a value based on that criterion. For example, if there are 2 data (one of type int and one of type floating point, with more), then C ++ returns a floating point result.

The following example:

Floating a = 5.5 ;

Floating b = 6.6 ;

int c = 0 ;

c = a + b ; // Variable c almacene and valor 12 solo contradicting the sum of esperada 12.1

Comparative operators

Like the arithmetic operators, this group contains symbols that help you program better, but consider the conditional variable.

The following symbols can be found in this set:

x == y (the variable x es igual a y). Hay que tener presente que se usa el doble igual (==), ya que un solo = representará otro asignación.

x ! = y (the variable x is not igual a y)

x < y (variable x is smaller than y) x > y (variable x is larger than y)

x < = y (the variable x is menor o igual que y) x > = y (the variable x is mayor o igual que y)

An example of a programming structure with comparison operators:

if (x > 120) digital recording (LED pin, HIGH) ;

if (x > 120)

digitalWrite (LEDpin, HIGH) ;

if (x > 120) {digitalWrite(LEDpin, HIGH);}

if (x > 120) {

digitalWrite (LEDpin1, HIGH) ;

digitalWrite(LEDpin2, HIGH) ;


// all conditions are correct/

If you have any questions, leave them in the comments. We will reply to you as soon as possible and this will also be a great help to other members of the community. Thank you.

Author : Felix Albornos

I have been working in the technology industry for over 20 years, helping companies and users grow and learn in the workplace. I always learn something new.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What does += mean in Arduino?

If you’re using Arduino, you know that it can be hard to figure out what’s going on with a sketch. It’s a pretty simple programming language, but it’s meant to be simple, and it’s not meant to be easy to read. If you need a refresher course on what all the symbols mean, you’ve come to the right place. What does += mean in Arduino? It is an operator that looks like this: myvar += 3; The operator is called += and it adds or updates the value of the variable myvar by 3. If you wrote myvar = myvar + 3; you would get the same result since the contents of myvar are added to the variable. You can use the += operator with strings. Tooling I use these tools for my daily blogging workflow, and they all work well with Jekyll: I use this tool to manage my RSS feed: This website offers the following features: I use these tools when creating new posts

What does ++ mean in Arduino?

The Arduino programming environment uses the ++ as an increment operator to add one to the value a variable is holding. The ++ is placed before the variable. Although the ++ operator is used in some programming languages to indicate incrementing, it is rarely used in this context in Arduino. The ++ operator is used for incrementing a value by 1, or adding 1 to a value . However, if you want to increment the value by more than 1 (such as by 2), you can use the += operator, which is shorthand for adding a value to another value. But that is a blog post for another day…

What’s true concerning the for control structure?

In computing, the for control structure is a control flow statement used to execute a specified block of code a predetermined number of times. When the for loop is used, the code inside it will be executed by the computer repeatedly for every item in a given set. There are two types of for loops. One of these is the for loop, which is written similar to the way we would write a for/next loop in BASIC. The other type is more like an if-then-else statement. Notice that in both the for and the for/next loop, we have a starting and ending point. The for loop has the starting point: the initialization statement, followed by the condition, and then the ending point, the termination statement. First of all, I’m not sure what the for control structure is, but I’ve heard you can use it to control an increment counter, (which is the device we use for controlling the flow of electrons.) I also heard that it isn’t possible to specify an increment counter that is controlled by an increment control structure, but I’m not sure if this is true or not. Perhaps the only way to know for sure is to ask an expert.

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