Arduino boards are characterized by fairly simple programming in the IDE environment. This is due to the use of arrays and strings, which simplify the amount of variables and other data.

If you want to get into the world of Arduino programming, it is important that you know these two functions, because they will save you time and prevent mistakes.

To find out more, it’s important to read to the end. We explain what these concepts are and the steps you need to take to use the matrix. Let’s get started.

What is an Arduino board and what is it used for?

Below we show you the two very important elements used in programming an Arduino board:

Rows

Arrays, vectors or matrices are containers for variables. That is, they are variables that contain other variables, so they can be grouped together. They are also called matrices because their graphical representation resembles that of an array, and they are also called vectors because arrays of the same row or column have the same name.

To use a table, there are two requirements. The first is that all recorded variables are of the same type, and the second is that the limit of variables the program can store is not exceeded.

This limit varies from array to array, because we set it at the declaration itself (it is important that when we create an array, we reserve the memory that will be used to determine the end of the array). We can then say that it is a group of variables grouped under the same name, but within this group there may be other different variables of the same type, ordered according to an index. This makes programming easier, as the code becomes simpler and clearer.

Lines

Strings are data types that allow you to collect different characters. They differ from tanks in that they permit the storage of more than one character. You can record words, phrases, numbers, special characters, or the composition of these items.

For example:

String str1 = bienvenido ;

String str2 = vacuum cleaner ;

String 3 = 54321 ;

String str4 = bienvenido usuario 54321 ;

String str5 = */–+ ;

String str6 = bienvenido usuario ++**54325**++ ;

It is easier to obtain different results with this tool. This includes concatenation, which is the joining of two strings into one.

It is very useful if you want to run a code sequence, see below:

String str1 = bienvenido ;

String str2 = usuario ;

String String 3 = ;

str3 += str1 ;

Line 3 += ;

str3 += str2 ;

When str3 is entered, the result is a welcome user. We created a concatenation of the value Welcome and the variable Username after specifying an empty string variable. The other utilities are ToUpperCase() and ToLowerCase(), which replace all characters in a string with upper and lower case respectively. It is also very useful for converting numbers from decimal to hex, octal or binary.

To take the example of 26 :

int number = 26 ;

String hex = String(num, HEX) ;

String bin = String(num, BIN) ;

String oct = String(num, OCT) ;

a princess;

println(bin) ;

println(oct) ;

When printing the results you will see

1A

11010

32

1A would be 26 in hexadecimal, while 11010 would be the result in binary and 32 in octal.

Learn step by step how to use an array or matrix when programming with Arduino.

Arrays and strings are essential tools to learn to use when programming your Arduino board.

That’s why we give you these basic lectures to get you started:

Explanation

It is important to note that when using arrays, the first element with the number zero must be indexed first. So we can already ask questions about it and assign values to it.

We can declare them in one of the following ways:

int losEnteros[6]; //declare an array of 6 variables of type int

int losPins[] = {2, 4, 8, 3} ; //declare a matrix of 4 variables tipo int

float losSensores[5] = {2, 4, -8, 3.8, 2.1, 6}; //declare a matrix of 6 variables tipo float

char mensaje[5] = Saludo; //declares an array of 5 elements typeo char

char mensaje [6] = {‘s’, ‘a’, ‘l’, ‘u’, ‘d’, ‘o’}; //declare an array of 6 elements typeo char

int mimatriz[5] ;

int Pines[] = {2, 4, 8, 3, 6} ;

int losValores[5] = {2, 4, -8, 3, 2} ;

You have to remember that tank tables need an extra character to identify their name.

Access to table

As mentioned earlier, the array is indexed from zero, so the first value is at index 0. According to the example, values[0] will be 2 and values[1] will be 4. So we have to be careful when approximating the matrix. If we try to access beyond the end (with an index smaller than zero or larger than the declared size), memory locations used for other purposes will lead to errors.

Assign a value to the table

The assignment operator (=) is in turn used to assign the values of the matrix, continuing the example as follows.

  • losSensores[0] = 10 ; //gives 10 to the first element of the array
  • x = losSensores[4]; // stores the value of the fifth element of the array in the variable x

Take value from table

To extract a specific value from a specific array, and according to the example, we only need to use one string:

List of the best Arduino array projects you can do to practice

Now that you know these tools, it’s time to put them into practice.

That’s why we’re leaving you with these three projects that will allow you to put into practice and apply everything you’ve learned in this post:

Memory game

This is a fun application where you have to remember as many numbers as possible before the reels load.

As for the equipment we’ll need:

  • Arduino Mega 2560
  • 7-segment display (similar to the digits on pocket calculators).
  • Arduino keyboard type 3×4
  • Common bridges
  • Mini battery charge indicator

Then we connect them as follows:

  • The first pin on the left side of the 8th hole. Arduino pin. Pins 8-2 on the Arduino Mega controller. From the photo.
  • The seven-segment display is connected to pins 35, 37, 39, 41, 47, 49 and 53.
  • The mini battery indicator is connected via the DIO 9 and CLK 10 pins.

As for the software, it’s a :

#include

#include

int CLK = 10 ;

int DIO = 9 ;

Pantaglia de bateria TM1651 ( CLK , DIO ) ;

const byte FILAS = 4 ;

const COLS = 3 ;

Fists

{ ‘1’ , ‘2’ , ‘3’ },

{ ‘4’ , ‘5’ , ‘6’ },

{ ‘7’ , ‘8’ , ‘9’ },

{ ‘*’ , 0 , https://internetpasoapaso.com/arrays-arduino/# }

};

byte Row input [ FILAS ] = { 8 , 7 , 6 , 5 ] ;

colPins [ COLS ] byte = { 4 , 3 , 2 ] ;

Teclado teclado = Teclado ( makeKeymap ( teclas ), rowPins , colPins , FILAS , COLS ) ;

int inicio [ 7 ] = { 39 , 41 , 53 , 49 , 47 , 37 , 35 ] ;

int ugasi [ 7 ] = { 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 } ;

int jedan [ 7 ] = { 0 , 1 , 0 , 0 } ;

In t dva [ 7 ] = { 1 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 0 , 1 }

int sort [ 7 ] = { 1 , 1 , 1 , 0 , 0 , 1 } ;

int cetiri [ 7 ] = { 0 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 1 } ;

mascota int [ 7 ] = { 1 , 0 , 1 , 0 , 1 } ;

int sest [ 7 ] = { 0 , 0 , 1 , 1 } ;

int sedam [ 7 ] = { 1 , 1 , 0 , 0 } ;

int osam [ 7 ] = { 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 } ;

int devet [ 7 ] = { 1 , 1 , 0 , 0 , 1 , 1 } ;

int nula [ 7 ] = { 1 , 1 , 1 , 0 } ;

int pom = 0 ;

int s [ 50 ] ;

int k = 0 ;

within a party = 0 ;

Configuration vacía () {

Series . comenzar (9600) ;

Salida (inisio) ;

BatteryDisplay . init () ;

LIGHT_TYPICAL = 2, LIGHT_DARKEST = 0, LIGHTEST = 7 ;

BatteryDisplay . marco ( FRAME_ON ) ;

randomSeed ( analogue read ( 0 ) ) ;

while ( Party ! = 8 ) {

BatteryDisplay . displayLevel ( lota ) ;

s [ k ] = aleatorio ( 0 , 10 ) ;

WriteDisplay ( inicio , ugasi ) ;

retrazo (200) ;

Fish ( s [ k ] ) ;

Yes! Of course! = 0 ) {

WriteDisplay( inicio , ugasi ) ;

Combination;

}

Party ++; k ++ ;

} // mientras finaliza

} // End of the configuration

vacío bucle () {} {}

at Conrad’s…

int pom= 0 ;

mientras ( pom <= k ) {

char key = teclado. getKey() ;

while ( ! tecla ) { tecla = teclado . obtener la clave (); }

if ( s [ pom ] ! = K ( tecla )) gives – 1 ;

pom++ ;

retrazo (400) ;

}

back 0 ;

} // End of conachno/

if ( key == ‘1’ ) return 1 ;

otherwise, if ( clave == ‘2’ ) returns 2 ;

Otherwise, if (clave == ‘3’), we get 3 ;

Otherwise, if ( clave == ‘4’ ), we get 4 ;

otherwise, if ( clave == ‘5’ ) the result is 5 ;

otherwise, if (clave == ‘6’) the wolf 6 ;

otherwise if ( clave == ‘7’ ) return 7 ;

Otherwise, if (clave == ‘8’), we get 8 ;

Otherwise, if (clave == ‘9’), we get 9 ;

}

}

Knight Rider, Fantasy Car orFantasy Car

If these names don’t sound like you, they certainly sound like your parents or even your grandparents. This is the code that allows a series of LEDs to behave like one of the main characters of this series from the 80s.

We’re gonna need it:

  • 6 LED LIGHT
  • 6 resistors 220 Ohm
  • UN Council Arduino
  • Common bridges

The LEDs are connected to pins 2-7 with a resistor in the jumper each. We will also show you 3 different ways to program this visual effect. In the first one we will only use DigitalWrite (pinNum, HIGH / LOW) and Delay (time). In the second, we will do this by constructing the For type, which does the same thing, but in a code with fewer lines.

Finally, a code that makes this effect smoother:

/* Knight Rider 1

*/

int pin2 = 2 ;

int pin3 = 3 ;

int pin4 = 4 ;

int pin5 = 5 ;

int pin6 = 6 ;

int pin7 = 7 ;

int timer = 100 ;

void setup() {

pinMode(pin2, OUTPUT) ;

pinMode(pin3, OUTPUT) ;

pinMode(pin4, OUTPUT) ;

pinMode(pin5, OUTPUT) ;

pinMode(pin6, OUTPUT) ;

pinMode(pin7, OUTPUT) ;

}

void loop() {

digitalWrite(pin2, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin2, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin3, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin3, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin4, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin4, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin5, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin5, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin6, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin6, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin7, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin7, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin6, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin6, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin5, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin5, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin4, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin4, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin3, HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pin3, LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

}

/* Knight Rider 2

*/

int pinArray[] = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} ;

int score = 0 ;

int timer = 100 ;

void setup() {

// …we’ll do all the claims at once.

for (count=0;count<6;count++) {

pinMode(pinArray[count], OUTPUT) ;

}

}

void loop() {

for (count=0;count<6;count++) { digitalWrite(pinArray[count], HIGH); delay(timer); digitalWrite(pinArray[count], LOW); delay(timer); } for (count=5;count>=0;count–) {

digitalWrite(pinArray[count], HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pinArray[count], LOW) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

}

}

/* Knight Rider 3

*/

int pinArray[] = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} ;

int score = 0 ;

int timer = 30 ;

void setup() {

for (count=0;count<6;count++) {

pinMode(pinArray[count], OUTPUT) ;

}

}

void loop() {

for (count=0;count<5;count++) { digitalWrite(pinArray[count], HIGH); delay(timer); digitalWrite(pinArray[count + 1], HIGH); delay(timer); digitalWrite(pinArray[count], LOW); delay(timer*2); } for (count=5;count>0;count–) {

digitalWrite(pinArray[count], HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pinArray[count – 1], HIGH) ;

Delay (Timer) ;

digitalWrite(pinArray[count], LOW) ;

Delay (Timer*2) ;

}

}

Binary clock

A binary clock is an artifact that represents time (which is hexadecimal) in a complex binary expression, i.e. with six digits (2 for the hour, 2 for the minutes and 2 for the seconds).

It’s very easy. You only need one to start:

  • 1 perforated grid plate
  • 6 red LEDs
  • 6 green LEDs
  • 5 yellow LEDs
  • 17 resistors of 330 Ohm
  • 17 Horseman
  • Arduino U.N.

With what you have learned, you will be able to clarify all the tables that are displayed in the code needed to control this clock.

Look at this:

int ledPinsSec[] = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} ;

int ledPinsMin[] = {8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13} ;

int ledPinsHr[] = {14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19} ;

int secSize = sizeof(ledPinsSec) / sizeof(int) ;

int minSize = sizeof(ledPinsMin) / sizeof(int) ;

int hourSize = sizeof(ledPinsHr) / sizeof(int) ;

int seconds = 30 ;

int minutes = 30 ;

int hours = 15 ;

void setup()

{

start (9600) ;

/Objen numero uno in Arreglo/

println(sizeof(ledPinsSec)) ;

for(int i = 0; i< secSize;i++)

{

pinMode(ledPinsSec[i], OUTPUT) ;

}

for(int i = 0; i< minSize;i++)

{

pinMode(ledPinsMin[i], OUTPUT) ;

}

for(int i = 0; i< hourSize;i++) { pinMode(ledPinsHr[i], OUTPUT); } } void loop() { seconds++; if(seconds > 59)

{

Seconds = 0 ;

Minutes++ ;

if (minutes > 59)

{

Minutes = 0 ;

Clock++ ;

if (hours > 23)

{

Hours = 0 ;

}

}

}

//Serial.println((char) seconds) ;

..;

print(clock) ;

print( minutes : ) ;

print(minutes) ;

print( seconds : ) ;

in seconds;

Show Seconds() ;

DisplayMinutes() ;

DisplayHours() ;

Delay(1000);

/*

Show Seconds() ;

DisplayMinutes() ;

DisplayHours();*/

}

void DisplaySeconds()

{

for(int i = secSize – 1; i>= 0; i–)

{

int CurrentSecond = bitRead(seconds, i) ;

digitalWrite(ledPinsSec[i], currentSecond) ;

}

}

void DisplayMinutes()

{

for(int i = minSize – 1; i>= 0; i–)

{

int currentMinute = bitRead(minutes, i) ;

digitalWrite(ledPinsMin[i], currentMinute) ;

}

}

void DisplayHours()

{

for(int i = hourSize – 1; i>= 0; i–)

{

int currentHour = bitRead(hours, i) ;

digitalWrite(ledPinsHr[i], currentHour) ;

}

}

If you have any questions, leave them in the comments. We will reply to you as soon as possible and this will also be a great help to other members of the community. Thank you.

Author : Felix Albornos

I have been working in the technology industry for over 20 years, helping companies and users grow and learn in the workplace. I always learn something new.

You may also be interested in:

frequently asked questions

How do arrays work in Arduino?

arduino ‘ arduino_arrays

What does initialization of an array mean?

Documentation ‘ SSLTBW_2.3.0 ‘ Arin

How do I get the array size in Arduino?

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